Capitailist - This system works under private authority and its aim is to earn maximum profit. This is also known as market economy. Prices here are fixed by market forces. Socialist- This system is governed by one central authority and its aim is social welfare.
In the decades that followed independence, they worked to shape the cultural, political, and economic character of the postcolonial state. Some worked against the challenges of continued European cultural and political hegemony, while others worked with European powers in order to protect their interests and maintain control over economic and political resources.
Decolonization, then, was a process as well as a historical period. Yet the nations and regions of Africa experienced it with varying degrees of success.
Byformal European political control had given way to African self-rule—except in South Africa. Culturally and politically, however, the legacy of European dominance remained evident in the national borders, political infrastructures, education systems, national languages, economies, and trade networks of each nation.
Ultimately, decolonization produced moments of inspiration and promise, yet failed to transform African economies and political structures to bring about true autonomy and development.
The Year of Africa "Most of our weaknesses," declared Kenneth Kaunda, first president of Zambia, in a March speech, "derive from lack of finance, trained personnel, etc.
We are left with no choice but to fall on either the east or west, or indeed, on both of them. When decolonization began, there were reasons for optimism. The year was heralded throughout Africa and the West as "the Year of Africa" for the inspiring change that swept the continent. During that year, the Sharpeville massacre in South Africa shook the world to awaken to the horrors of white minority rule as South African police fired into a crowd of peaceful black protesters, killing sixty-nine in full view of photographers and reporters.
Also inseventeen African territories gained independence from the strong arm of European colonial rule. These seventeen nations joined the United Nation's General Assembly and gave greater voice to the non-Western world.
Fully recognizing the potential for the remarkable change that African independence could bring to global politics, on February 3,Harold Macmillan, prime minister of Great Britain from todelivered his famous speech, "Wind of Change," to the South African parliament.
The Cold War It was this fear of Soviet influence in Africa, particularly on the part of the United States, that created such a major problem for African nations. Western powers viewed African independence through the lens of the Cold War, which rendered African leaders as either pro-West or pro-East; there was little acceptable middle ground.
Along these lines, in his speech on the occasion of Kenya's independence from Britain inPrime Minister Jomo Kenyatta in power from to declared: The aim of my government which starts today is not to be pro-left or pro-right.
We shall pursue the task of national building in friendship with the rest of the world. Nobody will ever be allowed to tell us, to tell me: We shall remain free and whoever wants friendship with us must be a real friend.
Nonetheless, as Africans declared themselves nonaligned, pro-West, or Marxist sympathizers, Cold War politics deprived them of the freedom to truly shape their political paths. Combined with the strong residue of the colonial political structure, African leaders designed their internal and external politics mindful of the Western powers' vigilance against socialist or communist influences.
Although Western European powers granted aid to African nations, they also coerced governments to support their agendas and instigated and aided coups against democratically elected governments. They also fomented civil unrest to ensure that governments friendly to their Cold War agenda remained in power and those that were not were removed by political machinations or assassination.
In the Congo, for example, Joseph Mobutu took a strong anti-communist position and was subsequently rewarded by Western powers. It mattered little that in he helped orchestrate the coup that removed and ultimately brought about the murder of Patrice Lumumba, was among the most anti-democratic leaders on the continent, and siphoned Western aid and revenue from the nation's natural resources into personal accounts.
Mobutu's rise to power and economic and political damage to Congo in the process—with the help of his Western allies—demonstrates that the politics of the Cold War, more than anything else, defined the successes and failures of African decolonization.
Neo Colonialism In the s, Frantz Fanon, the anti-colonial intellectual and psychoanalyst, among others, described neo-colonialism as the continued exploitation of the continent from outside and within, together with European political intervention during the post-independence years.
One of the many questions that African leaders faced was whether continued economic and political interaction with former colonial powers threatened their autonomy and political viability.
The ex- colonizers wanted to retain their former colonial territories within their sphere of influence. This continued relationship, Fanon argued, benefited African politicians and the small middle class but did not benefit the national majorities.
The result was tension between the ruling classes and the majority population. In he wrote in Toward the African Revolution: Every new sovereign state finds itself practically under the obligation of maintaining definite and deferential relations with the former oppressor.
This competitive strategy of Western nations, moreover, enters into the vaster framework of the policy of the two blocs, which for ten years has held a definite menace of atomic disintegration suspended over the world.
And it is surely not purely by chance that the hand or the eye of Moscow is discovered, in an almost stereotypical way, behind each demand for national independence, put forth by a colonial people.
Early in the decolonization process, there were fleeting moments in which the emerging African and Asian nations did seek to shift the political paradigm away from the Cold War's East-West dichotomy. Foremost among these initiatives was the Bandung Conference, held in Bandung, Indonesia, from April 18 to 24, Representatives from twenty-nine Asian and African countries gathered to chart a course for neutrality in the Cold War conflict.
The attendees agreed that to avoid being trapped within a Western or Soviet political orbit, developing nations must not rely on the industrialized powers for economic and political aid. Therefore, they vowed to work together by pooling their developmental and technological resources to establish an economic and political sphere, a third way, to counterbalance the West and the Soviet Union.If the impact of economic stress on crime trends can be further understood, and even forecasted in the short-term, then there is the potential to gain much through policy development and .
This is the central economic problem. According to Answers (), Finite resources can be termed as a source by which people have taken % advantage and further it cannot be utilized. Infinite wants are those that are unlimited. To recommend the market, in fact, is to recommend letting millions of creative people, each with different perspectives and different bits of knowledge and insights, each voluntarily contribute his own ideas and efforts toward dealing with the problem.
India is characterized by more ethnic and religious groups than most other countries of the world. Aside from the much noted odd castes, there are eight "major" religions, odd languages spoken in various dialects in 22 states and nine union territories, and a substantial number of tribes and sects.
America's Problem of Assimilation. by Bruce Thornton. Thursday, May 24, Arizona’s is the toughest one to date that attempts to get control of illegal immigration and its social and economic costs.
The problems surrounding illegal immigration that this bill attempts to solve involve not just practical policies, but the very meaning of. Different economies have different solutions to the basic economic problem.
The different economies included are traditional, market, planned and mixed. Many different countries embrace the following varying economies.