Justice is Better than Injustice. Rejection of Mimetic Art X.
Synopsis of the Republic a. Socrates speaks to Cephalus about old age, the benefits of being wealthy, and justice ed. One would not claim that it is just to return weapons one owes to a mad friend cthus justice is not being truthful and returning what one owes as Cephalus claims.
The discussion between Socrates and Polemarchus follows db. So in what context is this the case? Thus, we may treat those whom we only think are our friends or enemies well or badly. Would this be justice? Discussion between Socrates and Thrasymachus follows bc.
It is not immediately obvious from the text, however, whether Socrates has demonstrated a necessary relationship between common justice and psychological justice such that the possession of one requires or entails possession of the other. between Socrates and Thrasymachus about the nature of justice. The disaccord between their views of the subject is extremely pronounced, but there are certain underlying agreements which guide the course of the debate. Such people not only liberate themselves; Plato, who was the most famous student of Socrates, thought like Socrates and was not happy with the Athenian society as it was. The Republic by Plato builds an ideal and complete city between Socrates, Adeimantus, and Glaucon.
Thrasymachus defines justice as the advantage or what is beneficial to the stronger c. Justice is different under different political regimes according to the laws, which are made to serve the interests of the strong the ruling class in each regime, ea.
Socrates requires clarification of the definition: Thrasymachus points out that the stronger are really only those who do not make mistakes as to what is to their advantage d.
Socrates responds with a discussion of art or craft and points out that its aim is to do what is good for its subjects, not what is good for the practitioner c.
Thrasymachus suggests that some arts, such as that of shepherds, do not do this but rather aim at the advantage of the practitioner c.
He also adds the claim that injustice is in every way better than justice and that the unjust person who commits injustice undetected is always happier than the just person ec. The paradigm of the happy unjust person is the tyrant who is able to satisfy all his desires a-b.
Socrates claims that the best rulers are reluctant to rule but do so out of necessity: Socrates offers three argument in favor of the just life over the unjust life: Socrates is dissatisfied with the discussion since an adequate account of justice is necessary before they can address whether the just life is better than the unjust life b.
Book II Glaucon is not persuaded by the arguments in the previous discussion a. He divides good things into three classes: Socrates places justice in the class of things good in themselves and for their consequences.
Glaucon gives a speech defending injustice: Socrates is asked to defend justice for itself, not for the reputation it allows for b. He proposes to look for justice in the city first and then to proceed by analogy to find justice in the individual ca. This approach will allow for a clearer judgment on the question of whether the just person is happier than the unjust person.
Socrates begins by discussing the origins of political life and constructs a just city in speech that satisfies only basic human necessities bc. Socrates argues that humans enter political life since each is not self-sufficient by nature.
Each human has certain natural abilities a and doing only the single job one is naturally suited for, is the most efficient way to satisfy the needs of all the citizens c. Socrates points out that the luxurious city will require an army to guard the city e.
The army will be composed of professional soldiers, the guardians, who, like dogs, must be gentle to fellow citizens and harsh to enemies c.
Poetry and stories need to be censored to guarantee such an education b. Book III Socrates continues the political measures of the censorship of poetry: Socrates moves on to discuss the manner in which stories should be told d.
He divides such manners into simple narration in third person and imitative narration in first person, d. To keep the guardians doing only their job, Socrates argues that the guardians may imitate only what is appropriate for this ed. The just city should allow only modes and rhythms that fit the content of poetry allowed in the just city bc.
Socrates explains how good art can lead to the formation of good character and make people more likely to follow their reason ec. Socrates turns to the physical education of the guardians and says that it should include physical training that prepares them for war, a careful diet, and habits that contribute to the avoidance of doctors cb.
Physical education should be geared to benefit the soul rather than the body, since the body necessarily benefits when the soul is in a good condition, whereas the soul does not necessarily benefit when the body is in a good condition b-c.
Socrates begins to describe how the rulers of the just city are to be selected from the class of the guardians: Socrates suggests that they need to tell the citizens a myth that should be believed by subsequent generations in order for everyone to accept his position in the city bd.
The myth of metals portrays each human as having a precious metal in them: Socrates proceeds to discuss the living and housing conditions of the guardians: Book IV Adeimantus complains that the guardians in the just city will not be very happy a.Socrates does not include justice as a virtue within the city, suggesting that justice does not exist within the human soul either, rather it is the result of a "well ordered" soul.
A result of this conception of justice separates people into three types; that of the soldier, that of the producer, and that of a tranceformingnlp.comy: Ancient Greece. CRITO: Well, I will not dispute with you; but please to tell me, Socrates, whether you are not acting out of regard to me and your other friends: are you not afraid that if you escape from prison we may get into trouble with the informers for having stolen you away, and lose either the whole or a great part of our property; or that even a worse.
Such people not only liberate themselves; Plato, who was the most famous student of Socrates, thought like Socrates and was not happy with the Athenian society as it was. The Republic by Plato builds an ideal and complete city between Socrates, Adeimantus, and Glaucon.
It is not immediately obvious from the text, however, whether Socrates has demonstrated a necessary relationship between common justice and psychological justice such that the possession of one requires or entails possession of the other. SOCRATES - ADEIMANTUS.
Here Adeimantus interposed and said: To these statements, Socrates, no one can offer a reply; but when you talk in this way, a strange feeling passes over the minds of your hearers: They fancy that they are led astray a little at each step in the argument, owing to their own want of skill in asking and answering .
Plato's Republic Quote ID.
STUDY. PLAY. T/F: Glaucon and Socrates were in Piraeus to pray to the goddess (Athena) I shall hardly know whether it is a virtue or not and whether the one who has it is happy or unhappy." The philosophers educated by the cities will be compelled to return to the darkness to dwell with the people in the city.