Survey of rebellions, revolutionary movements, and social revolutions in the twentieth century, including Guatemalan, Cuban, Mexican, Chilean, and Nicaraguan cases. Meets International Perspectives Requirement. Sophomore classification Exploration, colonization, and development of political, economic, religious, and cultural institutions of North American colonies before Topics also include social history, emergence of African-American slavery, relations with American Indians.
Muslim conquests Europe in While the Roman Empire and Christian religion survived in an increasingly Hellenised form in the Byzantine Empire centered at Constantinople in the East, Western civilization suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD Gradually however, the Christian religion re-asserted its influence over Western Europe.
The Book of Kells. Danish seamen, painted midth century. The Viking Age saw Norseman explore, raid, conquer and trade through wide areas of the West. After the Fall of Romethe papacy served as a source of authority and continuity. In the absence of a magister militum living in Rome, even the control of military matters fell to the pope.
Gregory the Great c — administered the church with strict reform. A trained Roman lawyer and administrator, and a monk, he represents the shift from the classical to the medieval outlook and was a father of many of the structures of the later Roman Catholic Church.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he looked upon Church and State as co-operating to form a united whole, which acted in two distinct spheres, ecclesiastical and secular, but by the time of his death, the papacy was the great power in Italy: From this time forth the varied populations of Italy looked to the pope for guidance, and Rome as the papal capital continued to be the center of the Christian world.
Roman legions had never conquered Ireland, and as the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity managed to survive there. Monks sought out refuge at the far fringes of the known world: Disciplined scholarship carried on in isolated outposts like Skellig Michael in Ireland, where literate monks became some of the last preservers in Western Europe of the poetic and philosophical works of Western antiquity.
Later in the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire restored its rule in much of Italy and Spain. Missionaries sent from Ireland by the Pope helped to convert England to Christianity in the 6th century as well, restoring that faith as the dominant in Western Europe.
Working as a trader he encountered the ideas of Christianity and Judaism on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, and around began preaching of a new monotheistic religion, Islamand in became the civil and spiritual leader of Medinasoon after conquering Mecca in Dying inMuhammed's new creed conquered first the Arabian tribes, then the great Byzantine cities of Damascus in and Jerusalem in By the early 8th century, Iberia and Sicily had fallen to the Muslims.
By the 9th century, MaltaCyprusand Crete had fallen — and for a time the region of Septimania. From this time, the "West" became synonymous with Christendomthe territory ruled by Christian powers, as Oriental Christianity fell to dhimmi status under the Muslim Caliphates.
The cause to liberate the " Holy Land " remained a major focus throughout medieval history, fueling many consecutive crusadesonly the first of which was successful although it resulted in many atrocities, in Europe as well as elsewhere. Charlemagne "Charles the Great" in English became king of the Franks.
Under his rule, his subjects in non-Christian lands like Germany converted to Christianity. Saxon Wars A map showing Charlemagne's additions in light green to the Frankish Kingdom After his reign, the empire he created broke apart into the kingdom of France from Francia meaning "land of the Franks"Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom in between containing modern day Switzerland, northern-Italy, Eastern France and the low-countries.
Starting in the late 8th century, the Vikings began seaborne attacks on the towns and villages of Europe. Eventually, they turned from raiding to conquest, and conquered Ireland, most of England, and northern France Normandy.
These conquests were not long-lasting, however. In Alfred the Great drove the Vikings out of England, which he united under his rule, and Viking rule in Ireland ended as well.
In Normandy the Vikings adopted French culture and language, became Christians and were absorbed into the native population. By the beginning of the 11th century Scandinavia was divided into three kingdoms, NorwaySwedenand Denmarkall of which were Christian and part of Western civilization.
Norse explorers reached IcelandGreenlandand even North America, however only Iceland was permanently settled by the Norse. A period of warm temperatures from around enabled the establishment of a Norse outpost in Greenland inwhich survived for some years as the most westerly oupost of Christendom.
From here, Norseman attempted their short-lived European colony in North Americafive centuries before Columbus. They eventually settled in what is today Hungaryconverted to Christianity and became the ancestors of the Hungarian people.
A West Slavic people, the Polesformed a unified state by the 10th century and having adopted Christianity also in the 10th century   but with pagan rising in the 11th century.
By the start of the second millennium AD, the West had become divided linguistically into three major groups. The Romance languagesbased on Latinthe language of the Romans, the Germanic languagesand the Celtic languages.
Sacking of Suzdal by Batu Khan The Other Greeks: The Family Farm and the Agrarian Roots of Western Civilization 2nd First Edition, with a New Pref ed. Edition.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, and European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Explores social, material, cultural, and intellectual bases of European civilization and relates them to major Afro-Eurasian civilizations.
Further Reading. As the world of Islam expanded from Arabia to China in the east, the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Russian steppes in the north and the East African coast in the south, new challenges faced those in authority. Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the Mediterranean. It is linked to the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, scientific revolution, and the development of liberal democracy. Explores social, material, cultural, and intellectual bases of European civilization and relates them to major Afro-Eurasian civilizations. Examines hunting-gathering and early agricultural societies; ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Judea; classical Greece and Rome; rise of Christianity; nomadic invasions of Europe; Byzantine and Islamic influences; and Europe's medieval synthesis.
Examines hunting-gathering and early agricultural societies; ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Judea; classical Greece and Rome; rise of Christianity; nomadic invasions of Europe; Byzantine and Islamic influences; and Europe's medieval synthesis.
The Incas was the largest Empire in South America in the Pre-Columbian era. This civilization flourished in the areas of present day Ecuador, Peru and Chile and had its administrative, military and political center located at Cusco which lies in modern day Peru.
The roots of Western Civilization For the purposes of this article, the “West” is that civilization which grew up in western Europe after the end of the Roman Empire. Its roots lay in the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome (which themselves built on foundations laid in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia).
Western civilization traces its roots back to Europe and the tranceformingnlp.com is linked to the Roman Empire and with Medieval Western Christendom which emerged from the Middle Ages to experience such transformative episodes as the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, scientific revolution, and the development of liberal democracy.