Conleth Hill as Macbeth. Macbeth is now playing at Berkeley Repertory Addison St. For modern audiences, there are few surprises in Macbeth, Shakespeare's study of the corrosive nature of unchecked ambition.
Medieval Poison Prevention and Cures by Lady Katja Davidova Orlova Khazarina In the course of studying herbalism to discover ways Medieval people cured common ailments with plants, I stumbled upon various methods of causing serious harm with the same.
The following is a survey of the various poison prevention and curative techniques I found in medieval resources. Some methods are quite logical and effective if viewed from the standpoint of modern medicine, such as avoiding eating potentially poisonous food in the first place by using a taster or by using emetics to purge the poison if ingested.
This information is related for scholarly purposes only and should not be used as a basis for medical prescriptions. This paper is NOT intended to inspire gentles to test these methods on their neighbors, nor is it a substitute for calling !
Methods for Poisoning According to the Oxford English Dictionary, poison is "any substance which, when introduced into or absorbed by a living organism, destroys life or injures health; popularly applied to a substance which destroys Macbeth corrosive nature of power by rapid action, and when taken in a small quantity.
Predominantly, it is believed to have been used as a political tool to remove one's foe or adversary; this theory is based on the fact that both myth the Egyptian gods Horus and Ra were fatally poisoned and history numerous Greek and Roman scholars and emperors were supposedly felled by poison reflects this.
Why was poisoning such a popular way of offing one's adversaries? A medieval poisoner had a variety of choices: Terence Scully, a noted medieval food historian, has written several books on English and French Middle Ages cooking which support this. It was quite understandable if the sundry resources that were available to the potential poisoner might make the object of his plotting somewhat anxious.
More imaginative ways, according to Baron Hamish in his entertaining UWEKAT lecture, included fumigating or soaking a victim's clothing with or in poison, applying poison to one's flatware or goblet, and hiding the poison in a pomander ball.
Scully's books support these practices, and a French medieval cook's procedures for preventing poison are outlined further below. Quite soberly Platina credits the mythology that had grown around this problem and was illustrated by the remarkably long-lived and seemingly unconquerable enemy of Rome, Mithridates the Great: The Argument for Intentional vs.
Accidental Poisoning Now, some of this poisoning may not have been on purpose. Often, it may have been done with the best intentions to cure someone!
Unfortunately, many of those who later prescribed metals and other dangerous substances for internal use failed to remember the care and caution with which Paracelsus measured and administered the doses of medicine he gave patients.
A lot kills, a little cures. Favorite herbs for this purpose, according to Freeman's Herbs for the Medieval Household, were aconite often called monkshoodblack hellebore, and larkspur.
On occasion, these poisons must have been used on people, too, for Walahfrid Strabo wrote that if a wicked stepmother poisoned your food with aconite, whorehound would counteract it. The pathology of such an infection was totally unknown at this time, of course.
Certainly better known were the dangers posed by what were generally called 'poisonous animals. The learned Aldobrandino of Siena transmits, for instance, helpful hints about the virtues of onion and garlic in this regard.
According to him, onions are much better used in therapy for sickness than as a food for the onions are very effective against the bite of a mad dog or of any other venomous beast.
Garlic, likewise, counts among its many potent qualities the ability to heal the bite of a venomous animal; so widespread are its virtues as an antidote to the harmful nature of other foodstuffs, he tells us, that it is called the Triacle de vilains the Peasant's Treacle, or universal remedy against poison.
Toward the end of the Middle Ages still, in Platina alone the attentive reader could find more than a dozen articles of food that are efficacious agents against the bites of poisonous or rabid animals.
It is one of the most interesting and popular works because it is very scientific and modern in its approach and was, therefore, used as a textbook of toxicology throughout the Middle Ages. This complex body of knowledge concerned the innate powers of all natural things including foodstuffs.
One could avail oneself of many specific counteractives that old wives or learned physicians had discovered in a wide variety of animal, vegetable, and mineral products. The consequent difficulty that became clear, however, was that, by eating, one was apt also to expose oneself to the potentially dangerous action that any particular foodstuff could exert.
Because an understanding of such potency was vitally important -- the health and well-being of virtually every individual depended upon a comprehensive understanding of it -- this broad and highly detailed lore was faithfully transmitted and constantly amplified by a series of encyclopedists throughout the Middle Ages.
Much of what it said belonged naturally within the purview of the professional cook and had to be clearly grasped by him. Centuries later, Charlemagne listed the herb in Capitulare, his 9th Century edict of required plants for his royal garden http: Prevention I found numerous theories and methods for avoiding poisons in medieval sources.
As stated before, these range from the commonsensical to the outrageous. Avoiding Unfamiliar or Suspected Food Common sense says that if one suspects one's host of deadly intentions, one is cautious about eating one's dinner!
Foods with uneven textures, like soups and stews, or those with strong flavors were prime targets for hiding pungent poisons, as I said earlier of Maimonides' writings, so worried diners frequently viewed them with some trepidation.
Care should also be exercised with regards to foods common in these parts Moorish Spain All these foods are best taken from a reliable person, above all suspicion, because the way to harm by poison is open only to those foods which assimilate the poisonous taste and smell, as well as the poison's appearance and consistencyOnce Macbeth has had a taste of power, he's willing to kill anyone (men, women, and children) who he thinks might undermine his seat on Scotland's throne.
But Macbeth doesn’t get to enjoy being a gansgta for long. The Power of Evil in Macbeth Evil is a destructive force; it causes harm to those who embrace it and their victims.
In Shakespeare's Macbeth, the protagonist Macbeth and Lady Macbeth fall into the hands of evil. Macbeth, written in the early 's by William Shakespeare, depicts the destructive nature of power through a variety of personalities in his archetypal characters.
These characters portray the negative impact power has on the mind, making it seem like power in itself is a corrupt idea. Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products.
Introduction: I have undertaken this review of the case against Dr. Andrew Wakefield because the issues involved are far more consequential than the vilification of one doctor.
The issues, as I see them, involve (a) collusion of public health officials to deceive Continue reading →.
Most Common Text: Click on the icon to return to tranceformingnlp.com and to enjoy and benefit. the of and to a in that is was he for it with as his on be at by i this had not are but from or have an they which one you were all her she there would their we him been has when who will no more if out so up said what its about than into them can only other time new some could these two may first then do.