Chapter 5 physical science objects to new york jets essay

Published in Applied Physics Research journal Vol. Restoring the Physical Meaning of Energy —distinguishing between the apparent energy and the real energy of moving mass. An Open Letter to the Scientific Community Published in New Scientist, May 22, "The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed-- inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory.

Chapter 5 physical science objects to new york jets essay

Kuban last revised Aug. I use this format to avoid webbot spamming Fig. Brown's website and book showing what he calls the "Rupture Phase of the Flood" Introduction Walter Brown, a young-earth creationist and retired Chapter 5 physical science objects to new york jets essay engineer, has developed a "Flood model"1 which he believes accounts for virtually all geologic evidence on earth, as well as a variety of astronomical phenomena.

His central thesis is that only a few thousand years ago the Earth's entire crust consisted of a granite slab 20 to 60 miles thick until recently, claimed to be 10 mi thicksuspended over a large reservoir of highly pressurized water.

According to Brown, due to centuries of "tidal pumping" from the Moon's gravity, the crust suddenly cracked and burst open, violently releasing the subterranean water and flooding the entire earth Fig.

He argues that large masses of rock and water were ejected into outer space during this massive eruption, creating all the asteroids, comets, and meteoroids in our solar system.

He further claims that the immense slabs of broken crust, which he calls "hydroplates," undulated, heaved and slid thousands of miles in a matter of months or less, and then crashed into each other to form mountains within hours.

Brown presented early versions of the model during the 's Brown,and subsequently revised and expanded it into a more comprehensive model of earth history, which he described in a book entitled In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood, now in its 8th edition Brown, He provides updates and excerpts of large portions of his book at his Creationscience.

Brown indicates that he is "Director of the Center for Scientific Creation" in Arizona, which apparently consists of two people he and his wife. Brown's Flood model and associated claims are overwhelmingly rejected by conventional scientists, since they strongly conflict with many lines of evidence that the Earth and solar system have had a long and complex history, and that the Earth is about 4.

Detailed critiques of Brown's Flood model based on earlier editions of his book have been made by Lippard a, b, and Jellison a, bwhile one or more his specific claims have been refuted by others Bahcall, ; Fleming, ; Kuban, ; Matson, a,b; Morton, a; Sharp, ; Van Till, Although Brown's Flood model has garnered considerable popularity among lay creationists, many YEC authors and major groups have rejected or strongly questioned it, and refuted many of his specific arguments Oard, ; Faulkner, In the wake of such criticisms, Brown removed a few of the most glaring errors from his book and website, such as those regarding the "shrinking sun," "missing neutrinos, and a "Japanese plesiosaur" Kuban, ; however, he continues to promote many other dubious and unfounded claims.

This review expands on past critiques, and addresses recent updates to Brown's book and web site. Unless otherwise stated, any references to page numbers in this critique apply to the 8th edition of his book. Major Problems from the Start Brown's Flood model requires that the proposed water reservoir be totally sealed under the Earth's crust.

This precludes any significant earthquakes, meteorite impacts, or fissures in the crust anywhere on entire earth, even though such phenomena are well evidenced throughout the geologic record. Recently one of Brown's supporters suggested that this is a circular argument Hurlbut,since Brown holds that meteorites came from the Earth.

However, one reason it is not circular is that meteorites and impact craters are known from Precambrian strata, which Brown and most other YECs view as pre-Flood rocks. Moreover, the ages of these strata are derived from several independent dating methods discussed in further detail later.

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Even without earthquakes or meteorite impacts, the only way a surface crust could cover a global expanse of water below it is if it were almost perfectly smooth, lacking any mountains even hills.

Otherwise the crust would buckle, massively fracture, and release the subterranean waters Morton, a. Since Brown accepts the presence of pre-Flood mountains which are mentioned in the BibleBrown evidently realized that he needed something to help support the crust.

Thus, he proposes that on Days 2 and 3 of the "creation week" which he takes as literal solar daysthe granite crust "sagged down" deeply in places, all the way to the floor of the rock below the water chambers, forming supporting "pillars.

First, there is no empirical evidence for such pillars. Second, miles-thick granite plates would not "sag" and deform, especially in a matter of days, without extensive and massive cracking, which would immediately release the pressurized water.

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Brown suggests the granite crust would act like "putty" while under pressure, allowing it to deform without much cracking, and that any cracks would self-seal before they reached the water chambers.

However, granite is an extremely hard and crystalline type of rock, and does not deform to any significant degree without massive fracturing, except when near its melting point, and over long time periods Nelson, In contrast, Brown suggests the pillars formed in days, and if the Earth was hot enough to melt granite during the "creation week," it would only exacerbate the already immense heat problems discussed below, and kill all life on earth.

For years Brown held that the granite "hydroplates" were 10 miles thick, even though no evidence supported that assumption, and despite extensive geologic evidence indicating that the Earth's crust ranges from 20 to 60 miles thick.

Chapter 5 physical science objects to new york jets essay

Although the current 8th edition of Brown's book still includes the 10 mi. While this allows one facet of his model to better coincide with geologic data, it exacerbates the problems discussed above.

First, it worsens the irregularities that would invite cracks in the crust. Second, the greater thickness of the granite crust would make it even more difficult to deform severely and form the "pillars" without extensive cracking and earthquakes, immediately releasing the pressurized water below.

What Initiated the Flood? Brown claims that centuries of "tidal pumping" from the pull of the Moon's gravity led to the eventual rupture of the hydroplates, implying that the start of the Flood was a natural and inevitable event. However, elsewhere he indicates that the Flood was directly initiated by God in response to mankind's rampant sinfulness, in accord with his literal interpretation of Genesis.

Even other YECs such as have noticed this inconsistency and its troubling theological implications.Found Objects Kleptomaniac and her therapist. the network of friends she’d made when she first came to New York, a set of goals she’d scrawled on a .

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